An enthusiastic Industrial Design student at the TU Eindhoven, who loves industrial design, graphic design, web design, and videography!

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final bachelor project



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personal project



design research project





I believe good product design should promote self-development for the end-user. In particular, it should invoke self-reflection and self-awareness. Furthermore, it should help users reach their goals, express themselves, and work on their physical and mental wellbeing. One might ask; why is this important? This opens the door to a much deeper question; what makes life worth living? This is a highly personal and complex question, however, in my view, it can be boiled down to one word: growth. I believe that, without growth, one can never be truly fulfilled in their daily life. In this area, I agree with philosophical theories such as existentialism and stoicism, which both encourage fulfillment through self-development (Sartre, J. P., & Mairet, P, 1960; Inwood, B., 1985).

Promoting self-development does not equal promoting constant happiness, because self-development often involves struggle (Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G., 1995; Park, C. L. et al, 1996). I believe constant happiness in itself is impossible because there can’t be highs without lows. Moreover, I believe promoting constant happiness can be dangerous. This became apparent with social media, which often shows highlight reels of people’s lives. Because nobody experiences such a highlight reel in real-life, seeing others seemingly be constantly happy can negatively influence wellbeing (Beyens, I. et al, 2020; O’Reilly M. et al, 2018).

Self-development is a personal and long-term process. Therefore, I believe in customizable design, as this allows a product to adapt to and grow with the user. I define customization as the ability for users to change features of a product to their needs and liking. This could be achieved physically, with interchangeable parts, but also digitally, through software. Customizability ties into quantifying yourself, as some common motives for this movement are tinkering with hardware and creatively expressing data (Quantified Self, n.d.). For me, an interesting physical example is Framework’s Modular Laptop (Framework, n.d.) and a digital example is the Smart Band by Xiaomi (Xiaomi, n.d.). These products interest me because they can be set up in a way that aligns with personal goals. In the Modular Laptop, this entails your workflow and in the Smart Band, this concerns your health goals.

Currently, technology is advancing more rapidly than ever (Our World in Data, 2023). I believe this provides an opportunity for designers to use technology to facilitate self-development. Therefore, I am an advocate for the quantified-self movement, which promotes self-knowledge through numbers (Quantified Self, n.d.). I believe that data inherently tracks growth because it shows the difference between point A and point B. However, it falls short in explaining and contextualizing growth, because it hardly accounts for environmental or subjective influences (e.g. mood of the user). To facilitate true growth, the quantified-self approach should be supplemented by qualitative or subjective data. Therefore, my designs aim to incorporate a semi-automatic quantified-self approach. This means that the design helps quantify behaviors, but doesn’t judge them. Explicit user input should be gathered to contextualize the objective data and help users draw their own conclusions. This allows for maximum self-awareness, which is an integral component of self-development (UK College of personal development, n.d.).

A consideration for quantified-self design is privacy. This currently is a sensitive topic, with accusations against companies like Facebook for unethical data usage (New York Times, 2018). As privacy is a basic right, a consumer should always be able to have data ownership. Furthermore, quantified-self design should always comply with the GDPR (GDPR, n.d.) and enable users to explicitly opt-in on data collection. Lastly, I believe the frequency of data collection is something to be considered in the design process. I would argue that tools for self-development generally benefit from frequently feeding data back into them because it facilitates maximum insight. However, also in these tools, there is a threshold where more data does not equal more insight. This is something that the designer should be aware of.

I can identify with visions from companies like Apple or ASUS. What I like about Apple’s vision is that the user experience plays a central role (Mission Statement, n.d.). ASUS’ vision resembles mine even more closely, as their goal is also to utilize innovative technology to help users develop themselves, while seamlessly aligning with different lifestyles (ASUS, n.d.). Contrary to these companies, self-development books have a more pessimistic view of the effects of technology, as can be read in quotes from James Clear and Cal Newport.

“As a general rule, the more immediate pleasure you get from an action, the more strongly you should question whether it aligns with your long-term goals.” – James Clear (Atomic Habits)

“If every moment of potential boredom in your life—say, having to wait five minutes in line or sit alone in a restaurant until a friend arrives—is relieved with a quick glance at your smartphone, then your brain has likely been rewired to a point where, like the “mental wrecks” in Nass’s research, it’s not ready for deep work” – Cal Newport (Deep Work)

Literature also points to negative health effects caused by excessive gadget usage (Sarla G. S., 2020; Nisa J. et al, 2020). Personally, I believe that there is incredible potential in technology for self-development, but there is a fine line between empowering and obstructive products.




I am a curious person who is always trying to develop. I am eager to learn about graphic and product design, videography, programming, electronics, and most importantly: myself. From a young age, I had a particular interest in vitality and productivity, but also in more superficial aspects such as personal style. Later this grew into an interest in psychology, philosophy, and neurobiology, which I now use to make more informed design decisions. I believe all these topics can be captured by the term “self-development”, as they concern the pursuit of personal growth (UK College of personal development, n.d.). Over the years, exploring self-development served me well in building up my confidence, discipline, and interpersonal relationships. As a designer, this helps me be more empathic towards the user, and more reliable as a team member.

I am a practical and organized person. These qualities carry through in my expertise in designing; I work best in the more practical expertise areas Technology & Realization, and Math, Data & Computing. However, my detail-oriented approach also helps me with Creativity & Aesthetics by thoroughly positioning my design in literature, history, and the market, and by designing consistent aesthetics and interactions through art direction and UX design. In my designs, my main objective is to generate value by creating practical tools that help users develop themselves. Therefore, I like to actively involve users and stakeholders in my design processes. I do tend to attach the same weight to all user and peer input because ideally, I would like to please everyone. However, I have learned that by trying to please everyone, you please no one. Therefore, in my design process, I try to find a middle ground between user insights, literature studies, and intuition in my design reasoning. Customizable design helps with this because it allows easier integration of different perspectives.

I thrive most in a structured environment, and I learned to create such environments for myself through elaborate planning. Therefore, in collaboration, I often take on an overseeing role. I have become aware that I tend to try and over-control a collaborative process. For this, I am learning to focus more on myself and place more trust in my team members. My skills translate well to the realization or converging phase of a project and also help me effectively report and present conclusions. Conversely, I find it more difficult to indulge in more open and explorative design activities, because of the uncertain nature of diverging. It helps me to follow a hands-on ideation approach and make ideas as concrete as possible as fast as possible. Additionally, it helps me to actively search for collaboration with more explorative designers.

From a young age, I have been passionate about technology, to the point where I built my own computer. Moreover, products from companies like Apple, ASUS, or MSI are what got me interested in the field of design, because of how they built a valuable user experience around innovative technologies. In my design projects, I also constantly strive to work with, for me, new technologies, and integrate those in a valuable and creative way. Interestingly, self-development books that I read often take a critical stance on the value of new technologies. Ryan Holiday, a modern stoic and author of the book “Ego is the Enemy” states about phones:

 “That’s 52 days a year—one-seventh of our lives—sucked into a machine that gives us little in return beyond eye strain, carpal tunnel, and stooped shoulders”

These types of statements made me question; How can technology and self-development co-exist? What kind of aesthetic qualities would technology need to be beneficial to the self? I think the answer to these questions lies in the way high-tech products are designed, and this is what ultimately fuels me as a designer.


In the following sections, my PIV and Expertise Area development throughout my bachelor’s will be explained. For each year, my Expertise Area profile will be presented and my key areas of development will be highlighted. Those will be related to the Expertise Areas and previous development themes. This also highlights the inherent connections between the Expertise Areas.


At the start of my education, I possessed few designerly skills. I did have previous experiences with electronics, like building a pc, and an interest in sketching and crafting. My design vision revolved mainly around “exclusiveness” and creating “high-tech luxury”. It was clear that my vision originated from an interest in technology, however, it was plagued with inconsistencies and showed no clear reasoning for my beliefs. Throughout this first year, I learned to contextualize my vision, by referring to real-life problems. At this point, I shaped my vision around increasing vitality and efficiency for desk workers. Below, I will detail my main learning points and how they influenced my vision and design skills.

programming & arduino

Because my vision revolved heavily around technology, my initial PDP goals were to learn the basics of programming and Arduino. Luckily, I quickly encountered this in the Creative Programming course. Here, I learned how to write and document software in Java. Furthermore, I learned how to control software with physical sensors through a serial connection with Arduino. I later got a chance to further develop these skills in the Creative Electronics course, where I learned to create schematics, read datasheets, and properly wire my circuits. Overall, this helped me develop in Technology & Realization and Math, Data & Computing. It was very valuable for me as a designer because it allowed me to create interactive prototypes and further explore the role of technical design in my vision.

math, data & computing

technology & realization


To explore and communicate ideas effectively, it is essential to learn how to prototype. This became apparent to me in the From Idea to Design course. Besides prototyping hard skills, this course taught me to create “Wizard of Oz” prototypes to more easily communicate the essence of a design. Before this, I envisioned prototyping to be an end-all activity, where the only goal was to realize a fully working product. In the course, I learned that the act of prototyping itself is exploratory and should also be used to gain new insight, which sparked development in Creativity & Aesthetics. This was further emphasized in my Project 1, where we worked with snake shed. Because of this, the project was quite hands-on and consisted largely of exploring the material through different prototyping techniques. I appreciate this practical approach to designing because seeing and feeling a prototype helps me envision possible next steps.

creativity & aesthetics

technology & realization


In the courses User-centered Design and Introduction to Business Design, I explored the importance of user research in a project. This was greatly beneficial to my design vision because it urged me to approach design more from a user standpoint and less as a technology push. In these courses, I learned how to apply different user evaluation methods, define a target group through personas and market segmentation, and create customer journey maps. Furthermore, these courses taught me to more critically reflect on the user experience and the impact of my design decisions. These experiences helped me develop in the User & Society and Business & Entrepreneurship Expertise Areas. They shaped my design process to involve users and different stakeholders in multiple stages of a project.




This year, I built upon the basic skills that I learned in year one and applied them more in a project context. This year also greatly shaped my design vision. In the process of exploring my vision in my first year, I made it over-specific to the desk/working context. Because of this, it was difficult to steer my work with my vision. Therefore, this year, I generalized my vision to promote vitality through unobtrusive high-tech design. Additionally, I started to incorporate self-tracking and customizability. This vision lead me to do my Project 2 in the Health squad, and Project 3 in the Vitality squad. I switched from Health to Vitality, because I learned that I was more interested in preventing health issues at home than in treating them in the hospital. The next chapters will, again, highlight key points of development this year.

3D modeling

Because, I wanted to further develop my Technology & Realization expertise and explore customizability, one of my PDP goals for this year was to learn how to 3D model. I was interested in 3D-printed plastics specifically because they are lightweight, sturdy, and, most importantly, precise. They, therefore, lend themselves well to customizable parts and electronics casings. I first encountered 3D modeling in Project 2, where I learned its key principles; sketching on different planes and extruding those to create bodies. I applied this knowledge in my USE learning line Engineering Design, where I designed custom connectors for a PVC pipe skeleton with sensors. In that process, I learned to take printability and material costs into account when 3D modeling. Later, in project 3 STACKISTICS, I applied this skill to create cup dispensers for our prototype. In my personal project HAWK, I used it to design a custom display casing and attachment system. Because 3D modeling is online and fast, it allows me to easily visualize different ideas. This made me more iterative with my prototypes, while also making them more durable and precise.

technology & realization

math, data & computing

creativitiy & aesthetics

designing rich interactions

In the Aesthetics of Interaction course, I learned how to explore and evaluate interaction possibilities in my design. Truthfully, I was skeptical of this course at first, because I did not know how rich and expressive interactions would rhyme with my vision of quick and efficient products. However, I learned that carefully designing the interaction aesthetics actually is a crucial part of human-computer interaction, because it helps users perceive the intended use of products. This course made me aware of the history of product design. Furthermore, it taught me how to couple actions and functions through the Frogger Framework. Ultimately, this helped me further develop my designs by accounting for a broader definition of aesthetics, thus also developing my Creativity & Aesthetics expertise.

user & society

creativitiy & aesthetics

building a business

My PIV at this time involved the ambition to set up my own business in the future. My USE learning line Engineering Design allowed me to explore this ambition. This course taught me how to use tools like a SWOT analysis to evaluate risks and opportunities. Furthermore, I learned how to establish a business model, introduce a design to the market through the get-keep-grow model, and perform a market analysis. Lastly, I got familiarized with creating a product lifecycle and company timeline. I later applied some of these tools in my Project 3 STACKISTICS. From working with these Business & Entrepreneurship tools, I realized that they suited me less than I expected. I learned that I was more motivated to work on designing and realizing than on bringing a product to the market. Therefore, my ambition to start a solo business slowly faded away in my PIV. I would more likely see myself working in a small design studio, which also fueled my B3.1 internship choice for Bureau Moeilijke Dingen.

business & entrpreneurship

design (research) methods

Because my main activities this year were Project 2 and Project 3, I got acquainted with design and design research methodologies. Where my project steps in my first year were fairly random and unstructured, I now learned to choose and apply existing methods. In Project 2, I learned to conduct a design and literature benchmark for inspiration and to identify design opportunities. In Project 3, I first encountered design research; generating knowledge through designing. Because of the research-oriented nature, this taught me how to properly evaluate a design through a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Additionally, this project familiarized me with different scoping and ideation techniques, such as preliminary interviews, low-fidelity prototyping, and brain writing. Learning these methods helped me more individually shape and manage my design process in future projects.

creativity & aesthetics


After my first two years, I still needed to follow Design Research and an elective. Because I also wanted to do an internship for my B3.1 activity, I decided upon studying an extra year. Starting this year, an integral component in my vision was technology to improve quality of life. Therefore, my goals for the year were to develop my Technology & Realization and Math, Data & Computing hard skills and learn how I could further empathize with users in my design. For this, I followed four extracurricular courses (besides completing my remaining year 2 and 3 Bachelor courses). These were: Exploratory Making, Programming (Computer Science faculty), Intercultural Design, and Social Psychology (Psychology & Technology faculty). Below, I will detail how these courses shaped my design skills and vision.

advanced programming

I followed the Programming course from the Computer Science faculty because ID did not offer any more advanced programming courses. In this course, I learned to write more traditional Object-oriented Java in VSCode as opposed to in Processing. Amongst others, the course taught me about recursive methods, multidimensional arrays, and constructors. However, my most important takeaway was how to structure more advanced programs, which helped me greatly in future coding projects. To see how it would complement my vision, one of my goals was to explore Machine Learning (ML). Therefore, I followed the Intelligent Interactive Products course. In this course, I learned the basics of preparing, training and evaluating an ML model. It taught me how and when to use regression and classification, and the differences between time-series and frequency-domain signal processing. Through these courses, I improved significantly in Math, Data & Computing, and Technology & Realization. Furthermore, they brought me closer to realizing my design vision of quantified-self products because they helped me write more complex programs and work with more complex data.

math, data & computing

technology & realization


Because I noticed that practical ideation methods suited my professional identity well, I set out to further improve my hands-on ideation skills. Therefore, I followed both Sketching and Exploratory Making. From Sketching, my most important learning point was how to sketch complex shapes in perspective, and from Exploratory Making, my main takeaway was how to prototype these complex shapes. Because I could now communicate this better, these skills provided me with more design freedom in my idea generation and improved my Creativity & Aesthetics expertise. They were also easily and immediately implementable in other projects and courses. However, for ideation, I learned to use these methods more loosely. Because I usually quickly want to get generated ideas out of my head, imperfections are okay. Therefore, in my ideation processes, I do apply these methods, but without being overly detail-oriented.

creativity & aesthetics

user empathy

Because I am personally interested in psychology, I was eager to learn about core psychological theories. Moreover, I wanted to learn how these theories could influence my design activities. Therefore, I followed an introductory Social Psychology course. From this course, I learned how behavior is influenced through priming, persuasion, and conditioning. Furthermore, I got familiarized with classic psychology experiments such as Zimbardo’s prison experiment and Milgram’s obedience experiment. This made me more aware of the unconscious influence that a person or an object can have, and the influence of social and cultural aspects on someone’s perception. To explore this further, I followed the course Intercultural Design. In this course, I learned to tailor design decisions to the sociocultural context in which the design will be deployed. This helped me improve my User & Society expertise. Furthermore, based on these courses, my design vision became more dedicated to value creation for the user. This made me also reflect on what I found truly valuable in my life, which ultimately brought me to self-development.

user & society



My vision for this year could be summarized as “creating customizable high-tech design to facilitate self-development”. With this vision in mind, I decided to do my B3.1 internship at Bureau Moeilijke Dingen (BMD), a design studio in Eindhoven founded by Industrial Design alumni. They aim to create elegant solutions for complex problems to make the world a better place, which fits my vision well. What especially drew me to BMD was the engineering and technology-centered approach to design. Through this internship, I learned a myriad of skills that greatly shaped my PI and design expertise. Additionally, I thoroughly explored my design vision by reflecting on the “why” of “high-tech” and “customizability” and linking my vision to theory. For my Final Bachelor Project, my overarching goal was to create a design that truly encapsulated my PIV. Furthermore, I aimed to individually apply the design skills that I learned in my internship. My PDP goals for the semester were to:

  1. Learn how data from multiple user studies can inform my design decisions
  2. Explore the effects of product customizability on the user-product connection
  3. Explore the use cases of data as a creative material
  4. Learn how neurobiology and psychology literature can inform my design decisions
  5. Consider and reflect on the UX patterns in and interaction with an intelligent product

design argumentation

During my internship, I consistently got challenged to ask myself “why”. Through this, I realized that I tended to use shallow argumentation for my design decisions. Therefore, I set out to better ground them in (design) literature and user studies. I believe this is an integral skill for a designer because it makes you more reflective and aware of the ethical, social, and cultural impact of your decisions. Consequently, it enables the designer to create true value through design. This inspired my goals of seeing how multiple user studies and neurobiology and psychology literature would affect my design decisions.

To design REMEMBER, I incorporated three different user touchpoints with in total seventeen potential users, and I did an extensive literature review. This made me more confident in making quick design decisions because they had data to back them up. Additionally, it made it easier to advance a project and stay inspired, and it helped me develop my User & Society expertise. However, I also realized that different users and sources can provide conflicting input. In my FBP, I did not have a clear system in place to evaluate what input was more valuable, which sometimes slowed down the decision-making process. Therefore, balancing different stakeholders and sources with intuition is something I want to work on in the future.

user & society

art direction

Art direction is another tool to help me better argue my design decisions. Therefore, it was one of my internship goals. Art direction is an essential skill for a designer because it gives meaning and definition to design. It does so through benchmarks, and by aligning the vision of a project with its aesthetics and features. It is, therefore, linked to Creativity & Aesthetics. In my internship, I learned how to find design inspiration and mood board effectively, by using broad search terms and identifying overarching features. Additionally, I learned how to translate these features to design criteria and source hardware that fit the design criteria. From this, I concluded an art direction workflow that I applied in the LP stand for ANIMA.

For REMEMBER, I again applied this same art direction workflow to design the aesthetics of the casing. Furthermore, for this project, I also conducted a benchmark on related tools and exploratory interviews to identify what features could be integrated into the design. Through this, I incorporated more of a Business & Entrepreneurship standpoint. From this, I could not only define the aesthetic of the design but also create a MoSCoW table on design requirements. This process showed me how a combination of multiple sources of inspiration helps narrow down the focus of a project.

user & society

creativitiy & aesthetics

business & entrepreneurship

UX design

User experience (UX) design makes for intuitive and effective design and it also increases user satisfaction and loyalty. Because my vision is centered around facilitating self-development, which is a long-term process, these aspects are essential in my designs. In my internship, I designed the UX for the inspiration module of ANIMA. Through this, I quickly learned that designing a one-size-fits-all experience can be difficult because users have different knowledge and preferences. Furthermore, I became more aware of the consequences of many different interactions. This is valuable to consider when designing for self-development because those designs should bring the attention back to the user instead of the design. These experiences inspired my PDP goals about the effects of product customizability and the UX patterns in intelligent products.

For REMEMBER, I combined what I learned in my internship with the Frogger Framework, to design the UX to be more intuitive and rich. When designing the interactions, I learned that users preferred rich/expressive interaction for leisure and quick/efficient interactions when working. Additionally, I learned that customizability positively affected the user-product connection. However, it also had the opportunity to overcomplicate the product. Balancing the interaction possibilities would be one of my future goals.

business & entrpreneurship

creativitiy & aesthetics

user & society

parametric modeling

To build upon my 3D modeling knowledge, and to add another hands-on ideation method to my arsenal, I learned how to create parametric models. These are models that consist of constrained sketches. Adjusting one parameter will, therefore, change the entire model accordingly. This flexibility is beneficial when designing because design is an exploratory and iterative process. Parametric modeling is, therefore, a process that applies Math, Data & Computing to improve Creativity & Aesthetics in designing. Furthermore, parametric models allow you to more easily design customizable components, thus helping me realize my design vision. In my internship, I used parametric modeling to design the LP stand for ANIMA and make multi-part molds. Creating molds is a good skill to have as a designer because it allows for similar precision as a 3D print from materials with different properties.

The casing for REMEMBER has been designed through parametric modeling. In this process, I applied what I learned from mold-making to divide the casing into multiple neatly fitting parts. This allowed me to create a casing that looks like one smooth shape, thus adhering to my design criteria. This design should have been kept together with just four screws. However, this was proven to not be sturdy enough. Therefore, to further improve my Technology & Realization expertise, I should learn how to create stronger constructions with minimal screws.

creativity & aesthetics

technology & realization

math, data & computing

embedded systems

As a key component of my PIV is technology, it was essential for me to get acquainted with embedded systems. Embedded systems are the standard in electronic gadgets and lend themselves well to IoT systems. During my internship, I became more conscious about best practices for these systems. I learned how to properly solder PCBs and wire-to-wire, and be more considerate of power management. Moreover, I learned to adhere to a modular hardware approach, which helps scale up and troubleshoot an embedded system. To write software, I got introduced to function-oriented programming, VSCode, and Github, which helped me with version control and made my programming workflow more efficient. Ultimately, these skills helped me significantly develop in Math, Data & Computing, and Technology & Realization.

I applied these skills in the development of REMEMBER. All hardware is connected using a modular approach. Furthermore, because the product needed to have a small form factor, I learned to design a space-efficient PCB. All of the firmware is written in VSCode, thoroughly commented, and divided into functions for specific actions. Therefore, the code could easily expand through the iterations, and it allowed me to integrate customizability into the software. Additionally, in this project, I specifically learned how to connect a machine-learning algorithm to a physical output in Arduino. Overall, my electronic systems have grown to be far more reliable than last year, because this prototype did not break once. Therefore, I have gotten significantly closer to realizing my vision of creating high-tech design.

math, data & computing

technology & realization



Looking back at the past four years, I am pleased with my development. I have developed myself in all areas of design and shaped a vision that I stand behind and that can further guide my design activities. However, because of my interest in self-development, I am still eager to keep on learning.

To continue my development as a designer, I am pursuing the Master’s program of Industrial Design. Because my vision revolves around user-centered technology, I aim to follow the Research Design and Development track. I believe this track will provide me the handlebars to further develop my technological know-how, while also learning how to maximize the user experience. Within this track, I expect to specialize in Technology & Realization and Math, Data & Computing. However, I want my projects to also incorporate a strong basis in the other expertise areas, as I believe that this makes for truly valuable and innovative design.

The main criteria in my career would be to find a company that resembles my design vision. Additionally, as mentioned in my identity, I got inspired to become a designer because of companies like Apple, ASUS, and MSI, and how they can create value through innovative technologies. Therefore, I would like to pursue a company with similar values. However, I would rather not want to work in a big company, as I would like to have more of an individual impact, and more easily work in different parts of a design process. Therefore, after my Master, I aim to start working in a small-scale design studio with a technological focus.